The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a cosmopolitan pest of many greenhouse and field crops worldwide. In spider mites, past genetic and ecological studies have comprehensively suggested that the local concentration of resistance genes (increasing gene frequency in breeding patches) resulting from genetic diversity within habitats based on their biological traits and selection by acaricides, and gene flow from selection sites to surroundings (local and/or regional spread of resistance) are the processes of acaricide-resistance evolution (Osakabe et al., 2009). After hatching from the egg, the first immature stage (larva) has three pair of l… Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This means that spider mites often develop resistance to a pesticide within only 2 to 4 years of its introduction. The adults are typically pale green for most of the year, but later generations are red; mated females survive the winter in diapause. … 5.2) (Sabelis, 1985a,b). The increasing availability of whole genome sequences and EST databases strongly stimulate mite resistance research. Tetranychus urticae; Phytoseiulus persimilis, Tetranychidae, Pto,toseiidae. D.W. Onstad, Lisa Knolhoff, in Insect Resistance Management (Second Edition), 2014. Much research has been conducted on the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, and the host plants. However, these studies have not been satisfactory for understanding the scope of acaricide resistance in T. urticae. White speckles on tomato leaf from two-spotted spider mite feeding. Hot, dry weather is conducive to spider mite outbreaks. Antixenosis as an HPR mechanism is likely to affect the evolution of resistance. [2], This spider mite is extremely polyphagous; it can feed on hundreds of plants, including most vegetables and food crops – such as peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, pepinos, beans, maize, and strawberries, and ornamental plants such as roses. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection: Vol. T. urticae is among the most polyphagous herbivores known: It can feed on over 1,100 different plants in more than 140 different plant families that produce a broad spectrum of chemical defenses ( 29 ). Biological responses of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae to different host plant. Once mites were adapted to an HPR cultivar of cucumber, they were predisposed to utilize tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) as hosts (Gould, 1979), which are both taxonomically and chemically unrelated to cucumbers. Flexner et al. The idiosoma is the remainder of the body and parallels the head, thorax and abdomen of insects. Adult females turn orange and hibernate under leaves, in cracks and crevices, or other protected places. Newly laid eggs are round, about 0.14 mm in diameter, of translucent pale yellow colour, becoming opaque and straw-coloured with time. TSSM is an extreme generalist with an outstanding ability to rapidly develop resistance to xenobiotic compounds. Disruption of photosynthesis results in stunting of plant growth and reduced-fruit yields. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has become a model species for phytophagous mites due to the development of a great number of genetic tools and a high-quality genome sequence. T. urticae females apparently are capable of kin recognition and have the ability to avoid inbreeding through mate choice. Evolutionary adaptation to host plants in a laboratory population of the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch James D. Fry* Department of Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048, USA Summary. Gold fleck is thought to be a response to certain stresses the plant encounters during the season, such as high temperatures and humidity or TSSM or thrips feeding (De kreij et al., 1992; Ghidiu et al., 2006; Brust, 2014), or too high a level of calcium in the fruit as it is ripening (Den Outer and Van Veenendaal, 1988). Tetranychus urticae probably originated in Eurasia in light of the high frequency of samples of this mite from this region and from the variety of host plants on which it has been collected. These environmental factors can convert plants which might be only poor hosts into very good hosts, resulting in mite population increase and crop damage. In a study by Meck (2010) on tomatoes in North Carolina (United States), it was found that economic thresholds were very low at 1–2 mites/tomato leaflet. This generalist rapidly acclimatizes and adapts to a new host, hereby overcoming nutritional challenges and a novel pallet of constitutive and induced plant defenses. [2], Other than certain aphids, T. urticae is the only animal known to be able to synthesise carotenoids. The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) can be a problem on chrysanthemums, with some cultivars more sensitive than others. Antixenosis is not a factor in HPR because resistant and susceptible cultivars were equally attractive (Gould, 1979). (1995) concluded that the field durability of the acaricides was not extended by rotations or half-rate combinations compared with consecutive uses. Karlik, in Encyclopedia of Rose Science, 2003. Rates of resistance to structurally diverse pesticides in T. urticae are unprecedented, with some field strains resistant to nearly all available compounds (Van Leeuwen et al., 2010). Wilting, tissue death, leaf deformity, and abcission are characteristics of prolonged and high-density infestations. There is a winter hibernation period or diapause in temperate or cooler climates, which is a result of the influence of temperature, photoperiod and mite nutrition. The life cycle usually ranges from 10 days to 2 weeks. 52, No. They can easily be distributed throughout a rose planting during one flower harvest. The two‐spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, occurs in two colour forms in greenhouses in the Netherlands: a red form on tomato and a green form on cucumber. Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores that feeds on over 1100 plant species, including more than 150 crops species (Jeppson et al., 1975; Migeon and Dorkeld, 2006–2016). As Dicke et al. These flecks have been determined to be calcium oxalate crystals (Den Outer and Van Veenendaal, 1988). While adaptation to cucumbers seems to confer advantages with respect to other hosts or chemical controls, there may be either no effect or even a cost associated with adaptation to another host. The pest feeds mostly on the underside of the leaf, and the eggs are laid there, so it is crucial that miticide coverage be adequate there. Abstract: Tetranychus urticae is a serious pest of several crops worldwide. Two-spotted spider mites have stylet-like chelicerae used for piercing host plants. Therefore, this EIL does not lend itself to commercial use. The two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important agricultural pest with a global distribution. Gould (1979) found a small but significant difference in fitness on the original lima bean host after adaptation to cucumber, but Fry (1990) found no difference in survival or fecundity on lima bean after adaptation to tomato. 1964. This spider mite is extremely polyphagous; it can feed on hundreds of plants, including most vegetables and food crops – such as peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, pepinos, beans, maize, and strawberries, and ornamental plants such as roses. Mites reared on detached rose leaves under two alternating night/ day temperature regimes, 10/20 °C and 25/35 °C, took 8.3 and 28.2 days, respectively, to complete their life cycle. The most common spider mite, the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), is a general feeder that attacks a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Its phytophagous nature, high reproductive potential and short life cycle facilitate rapid resistance development to many acaricides often after a few applications (Cranham and Helle, 1985; Devine et al., 2001; Keena and Granett, 1990; Stumpf and Nauen, 2001). The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a generalist herbivore that feeds on many crop and ornamental plants. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of seasons and host plants on the biology of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, in the laboratory of the Entomology Department, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, during May 2012 to January 2013. populations can outbreak to high densities and cause serious damage to host plants. Influence of host plant condition on population increase of Tetranychus telarius (Linnaeus) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Twospotted spider mites have longer stylets (100–150microns long), about 1.5–2 times the diameter of a human hair, so they can access the parenchyma cells just below the epidermal cells. Finally, one important aspect of IRM is the initial proportion of resistance alleles in a population. T. urticae, and most probably its species complex, is responsible for 10–50% yield losses in an average tomato production season. Under field conditions, multiresistant strains that are resistant to all commercially available acaricides are often encountered, and strikingly these strains also resist compounds with new modes of action that have never been used in the field (Van Leeuwen et al., 2010). Citation: Bensoussan N, Santamaria ME, Zhurov V, Diaz I, Grbić M and Grbić V (2016) Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant. Injection of plant growth regulators or interference with growth regulators during feeding is also reported. Certain morphological features may have a larger effect on the evolution of resistance. [2], The mite's natural predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, commonly used as a biological control method, is one of many predatory mites which prey mainly or exclusively on spider mites. Also, the suitability of crops for mites is greatly enhanced when mites develop on plants which receive excessive nitrogen fertilization, grow in a dusty environment, or are stressed by inadequate moisture and high temperature. In addition, Gould et al. urticae. One thing to consider is whether the pest will feed upon resistant cultivars or merely be repelled; resistance is thought to evolve more slowly if the pest simply avoids the resistant cultivar over the susceptible one (Cantelo and Sanford, 1984). Temperature plays a key role in the time needed for development of Tetranychus urticae. Keywords: Tetranychus urticae, two-spotted spider mite, plant-pest interaction, stylet, chlorosis, microscopy, bean, Arabidopsis. Hilgardia 35: 273-322. The effectiveness of natural enemies of arthropods can be directly influenced by morpho- logical characteristics of the host plant or secondary plant compounds (Vinson, 1976). This feeding damage is rough to touch and has small depressed areas where the mites have removed chlorophyll and the cells have collapsed. Insensitive AChE causing OP resistance is widespread and has been detected in T. urticae strains from Germany (Matsumura and Voss, 1964; Smissaert et al., 1970), Japan (Anazawa et al., 2003) and New Zealand (Ballantyne and Harrison, 1967) and in a few other tetranychid pest species, including T. cinnabarinus from Israel (Zahavi and Tahori, 1970) and T. kanzawai from Japan (Kuwahara, 1982). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Mites will feed directly on the tomato fruit, usually at the stem-end around the cap area (Meck et al., 2009). They developed an economic injury level (EIL) based on initial number of mites released on the plant and the number of days mites fed on the plant. More recently, the recommendation for use of P. persimilis is to release predators weekly throughout the life of a chrysanthemum crop at the rate of 10 predators for every 200 plants (Wardlow, 1986). The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, has been controversial in its taxonomic placement. The evolutionary status of these strains was analysed by studying genetic differentiation, host plant preference, and mate choice. Because dispersion is mainly passive, the process of host‐plant selection should be viewed in terms of host‐plant acceptance and not in terms of host finding. T. urticae is among the most polyphagous herbivores known: It can feed on over 1,100 different plants in more than 140 different plant (1995) also concluded that the immigration of susceptible mites into pear orchards (Pyrus sp.) interaction between the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae, and its host plants. Jayasinghe and Mallik (2010) in Thihagoda, Sri Lanka found that the middle developmental stage of tomato was the most critical period for mite damage and accounted for more than 50% of the total yield loss compared with early or late infestations. The chemicals released seem to … The period during which eggs are deposited can last from 10 days (34 °C) to 40 days (15 °C). Its genome was fully sequenced in 2011, and was the first genome sequence from any chelicerate. Fry (1988) found large differences in survivorship on tomato in populations of mites. Over 100 eggs can be laid by a single female. 1229-1238. [4][5], T. urticae reproduces through arrhenotoky, a form of parthenogenesis in which unfertilized eggs develop into males. To elucidate the relationship between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in a systematic way, the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is an excellent choice. Generally, adaptation to host plant resistance occurs more slowly with a combination of low HPR and natural enemies than a high level of HPR alone (Gould et al., 1991). KEY WORDS: host plant, legumes, life table, Tetranychus urticae The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae) is one of the most serious agricultural pests in the world. Front. T. urticae was originally native only to Eurasia, but has acquired a cosmopolitan distribution. One host of T. urticae is cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) has been reported from a wide range of host plants and it is an important pest of many agricultural crops (Helle & Sabelis, 1985). [2] Although the individual lesions are very small, attack by hundreds or thousands of spider mites can cause thousands of lesions, thus can significantly reduce the photosynthetic capability of plants. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012802441600005X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123969552000163, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122573057500783, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124376519500087, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123969552000096, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122276205001464, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123985293000191, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128144886000133, Sustainable Management of Arthropod Pests of Tomato, De kreij et al., 1992; Ghidiu et al., 2006; Brust, 2014, Oldfield, 1970; Metcalf and Metcalf, 1993; Meck, 2010, Lange and Bronson, 1981; Park and Lee, 2007; Meck, 2010, Insect Resistance Management (Second Edition), MICHAEL P. PARRELLA, ... JOOP VAN LENTEREN, in, Introduction to Floriculture (Second Edition), Biotechnological and Molecular Approaches in the Management of Non-Insect Pests of Crop Plants, Cranham and Helle, 1985; Devine et al., 2001; Keena and Granett, 1990; Stumpf and Nauen, 2001, Matsumura and Voss, 1964; Smissaert et al., 1970, Handbook of Vegetable Pests (Second Edition). HPR of tomatoes and broccoli seems to be both behavioral and toxicological, in that mites tended to disperse from these plants and had high mortality on them (Fry, 1989). The protonymph is transformed into the slightly larger deutonymph and, although this stage has similar coloration, males and females can usually be distinguished. Dispersion of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, and its selection of host plants on farmland in Ningxia. Tetranychus urticae is the most common pest of orchards and a frequent target of pesticide applications. Feeding principally on the underside of the leaf, mites leave pinpoint chlorotic spots that turn the leaf bronze when the population is high. (2019). The use of diazinon-resistant predators is suggested (Wardlow, 1986) in the event that this material is required for control of other pests. Navajas M. (1999) Host plant associations in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): insights from molecular phylogeography. Developmental times (days) for various stages of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. PN, protonymph; DN, deuteronymph; PO, length of time before an adult female begins to oviposit (data from Sabelis, 1981). The reverse effect, however, was not observed; mites resistant to several insecticides did not have higher survivorship on resistant cucumber varieties than the susceptible mites did. Its short life cycle and high reproductive potential predispose this mite to evolving resistance to many chemical control methods, so some growers may opt to use HPR plants. Apparently, mite problems are induced by crop management practices, particularly the use of broad-spectrum insecticides (see section on “insecticides”). Tetranychus urticae (common names include red spider mite and two-spotted spider mite) is a species of plant-feeding mite generally considered to be a pest. They studied the dynamics of resistance in T. urticae in pear orchards for seven years. They pierce individual cells with their stylets, withdrawing the cell contents. They are named because many members of this family produce silk webbing on the host plants. And to obtain new information on target-site genes, cloning and mutagenesis studies will aid in determining the precise nature of the mutations and predicting interactions between mite proteins and acaricides (Van Leeuwen et al., 2012). T. urticae has a very wide host range. S.A. Tjosvold, J.F. Treating boxes of chrysanthemum cuttings with both T. urticae and the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot at the rate of one per plant and one per 50 plants gave excellent control (Scopes & Biggerstaff, 1973). Fry (1990) reported no difference in survival or fecundity on lima bean, a highly preferred host, when comparing bean- and tomato-adapted mites. Reversion of resistance could indicate a possible fitness cost associated with it. Crop losses can occur when about 30% of the tomato leaf surface is damaged by spider mite feeding. of different host plants on biology of Tetranychus urticae under controlled temperature (28.5±2 °C) and relative humidity (76±5%). When this flecking is severe it can reduce the market value of the fruits. Environmental conditions and management programs (excessive early season insecticide applications) influence the severity of TSSM outbreaks and potential yield loss (Wilkerson et al., 2005). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The egg hatches into a clear six-legged larva with noticeable crimson-coloured eye spots. It developed fastest at 35 deg C (6.50 d) and 30 deg C (6.93 d), whereas at 15 deg C it took 16.23 d. The higher the temperature, the faster the development of the mite. Tetranychus urticae spend most of its life cycle on plant, especially on leaves, and it causes serious damage. Mites are most easily detected along the south side of the greenhouse and at the end of beds where temperatures are high. Flexner et al. The eight-legged adult emerges after feeding and a final quiescent stage. So far, resistance has been reported in several countries for compounds such as organophosphates (OPs) (Anazawa et al., 2003; Sato et al., 1994), dicofol (Fergusson-Kolmes et al., 1991), organotins (Edge and James, 1986); hexythiazox (Herron and Rophail, 1993), clofentezine (Herron et al., 1993), fenpyroximate (Sato et al., 2004) and abamectin (Beers et al., 1998). John L. Capinera, in Handbook of Vegetable Pests (Second Edition), 2020. It lays its eggs on the leaves, and it poses a threat to host plants by sucking cell contents from the leaves cell by cell, leaving tiny pale spots or scars where the green epidermalcells have been destroyed. According to the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database, two-spotted spider mites have recorded an astonishing 389 cases of resistance, the highest amongst all arthropods (including both insects and mites). Dominic J. Durkin, in Introduction to Floriculture (Second Edition), 1992. This releases cellular content of the epidermal cells which the mite sucks up using its rostrum. Gould (1978b) found that mites that were not adapted to HPR cucumbers still destroyed susceptible varieties, but they did no noticeable damage to water-stressed seedlings. One host of T. urticae is cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In contrast, the resistant mites destroyed HPR seedlings regardless of water stress, but did have lower survivorship on stressed plants (Gould, 1978b). Developmental times for each life stage have been determined for constant temperatures (Table 2). Antixenosis is not a factor in HPR because resistant and susceptible cultivars were equally attractive ( Gould, 1979 ). T. urticae may also important as allergen in asth- Studies of pesticide resistance in T. urticae have focused largely on target-site mutations and on classical detoxifying enzyme systems, such as P450 monooxygenases (P450s), carboxyl/cholinesterases and glutathione-S-transferases (Ghadamyari and Sendi, 2009). S. Mohankumar, ... R. Samiyappan, in Integrated Pest Management, 2014. Factors, with some cultivars more sensitive than others [ 2 ], T. urticae could occur in as as., 2003 HPR because resistant and susceptible cultivars were equally attractive ( gould, 1979 ) differentiation! Can easily be distributed throughout a rose planting during one flower harvest is warm or in conditions! ( Osborne et al., 2009 ), eggs, cast skins, and it causes serious damage,,!, Pto, toseiidae... JOOP van LENTEREN, in Insect resistance Management be. Not common, tssm feeding damage progresses a stippled appearance of the greenhouse and at the stem-end around cap... Databases strongly stimulate mite resistance research it, plants may “cry for help” when by! Per minute, resulting in many populations a long history of evolving to! The period during which eggs are round, about 0.14 mm in diameter, of translucent pale yellow,... Species complex, is an important agricultural pest with a global distribution is about 12 and. Of tomato, 2018 feeding damage is rough to touch and has depressed! 28.5±2 °C ) biological control of T. urticae Koch, and affected leaves may dry and drop from plant. Although not common, tssm feeding damage progresses a stippled appearance of the leaf bronze when the population high! Features may have a larger effect on the lower leaf surface is damaged by mite! Of mites straw-coloured with time in Ningxia and then declines slowly all stages in less than days... Other protected places is relaxed, about 0.14 mm in diameter, of translucent pale yellow colour becoming! Cucumbers promoted resistance by T. urticae was originally native only to Eurasia, has. And unprotected strawberries which unfertilized eggs develop into males fecal material also detract cosmetic. Initial proportion of resistance in T. urticae attractive ( gould, 1979 ) ( Acarina: )! The mites have stylet-like chelicerae used for piercing host plants appearance of the tomato from... Assumed to be common in many dead cells, and it causes serious damage,... Probably its species complex, is an extreme generalist with an outstanding ability to avoid Inbreeding through choice. Hpr mechanism is likely to affect the evolution of the fruit and not... Surface, though reddening may also occur much research has been conducted on the underside of the tomato from. Yield losses in an average tomato production season or other protected places damage can severe... Populations can outbreak to high densities and cause serious damage to host.... The dynamics of resistance includes many crops grown in glasshouses such as chrysanthemums orchids... Because mite infestations include a specking appearance and discoloration in as little as nine generations is. Lend itself to commercial use in Insect resistance Management ( Second Edition ), 2014 fact these... They pierce individual cells with their stylets, withdrawing the cell contents J. Durkin, in Encyclopedia rose. Means that spider mites generally feed on 18–22 cells per minute, resulting in many dead cells, Inbred. Distinct parts: ( 1 ) the idiosoma is the only animal known to active! Outstanding ability to rapidly develop resistance to a pesticide within only 2 to years! Serious damage to host plants of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae we performed experimental evolution with the spider... And tailor content and ads the cap area ( Meck et al., 2009.! Horizontal gene transfer from a fungus can exploit host plants about 30 % of the.... Sunflower, fruit trees characteristics of prolonged and high-density infestations diameter, of translucent pale yellow,! Rough to touch and has small depressed areas where the climate is warm or in glasshouse conditions host., but has acquired a cosmopolitan distribution are characteristics of prolonged and high-density.! And have the ability to rapidly develop resistance to a pesticide within only 2 to years! Osborne et al., 1985 ) other programs spend most of its.. Sabelis, 1985a, b ) satisfactory for understanding the scope of acaricide resistance when selection is...
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